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Send & Receive MMS

| Python | PHP | Node | .NET | Ruby |


Python

30 minutes build time

Introduction

Telnyx's messaging API supports both MMS and SMS messsages. Inbound multimedia messaging (MMS) messages include an attachment link in the webhook. The link and corresponding media should be treated as ephemeral and you should save any important media to a media storage (such as AWS S3) of your own.

What you can do

At the end of this tutorial you'll have an application that:

  • Receives an inbound message (SMS or MMS)
  • Iterates over any media attachments and downloads the remote attachment locally
  • Uploads the same attachment to AWS S3
  • Sends the attachments back to the same phone number that originally sent the message

Pre-reqs & technologies

Setup

Telnyx Portal configuration

Be sure to have a Messaging Profile with a phone number enabled for SMS & MMS and webhook URL pointing to your service (using ngrok or similar)

Install packages via PIP

pip install telnyx
pip install boto3
pip install flask
pip install dotenv
pip install requests

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This will create Pipfile file with the packages needed to run the application.

Setting environment variables

The following environmental variables need to be set

VariableDescription
TELNYX_API_KEYYour Telnyx API Key
TELNYX_PUBLIC_KEYYour Telnyx Public Key
TELNYX_APP_PORTDefaults to 8000 The port the app will be served
AWS_PROFILEYour AWS profile as set in ~/.aws
AWS_REGIONThe region of your S3 bucket
TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKETThe name of the bucket to upload the media attachments

.env file

This app uses the excellent python-dotenv package to manage environment variables.

Make a copy of the file below, add your credentials, and save as .env in the root directory.

TELNYX_API_KEY=
TELNYX_PUBLIC_KEY=
TENYX_APP_PORT=8000
AWS_PROFILE=
AWS_REGION=
TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKET=

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Code-along

We'll use a singe app.py file to build the MMS application.

touch app.py

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Setup Flask Server

import telnyx
import os
from urllib.parse import urlunsplit, urlparse
import json
import requests
import boto3
from botocore.exceptions import ClientError
from flask import Flask, request, Response
from dotenv import load_dotenv

app = Flask(__name__)

## Will add more flask code
## ..
## ..

## Load env vars and start flask server
if __name__ == "__main__":
load_dotenv()
TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKET = os.getenv("TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKET")
telnyx.api_key = os.getenv("TELNYX_API_KEY")
TELNYX_APP_PORT = os.getenv("TELNYX_APP_PORT")
app.run(port=TELNYX_APP_PORT)

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Receiving Webhooks

Now that you have setup your auth token, phone number, and connection, you can begin to use the API Library to send/receive SMS & MMS messages. First, you will need to setup an endpoint to receive webhooks for inbound messages & outbound message Delivery Receipts (DLR).

Basic routing & functions

The basic overview of the application is as follows:

  1. Verify webhook & create TelnyxEvent
  2. Extract information from the webhook
  3. Iterate over any media and download/re-upload to S3 for each attachment
  4. Send the message back to the phone number from which it came
  5. Acknowledge the status update (DLR) of the outbound message

Media download & upload functions

Before diving into the inbound message handler, first we'll create a few functions to manage our attachments.

  • download_file saves the content from a URL to disk
  • upload_file uploads the file passed to AWS S3 (and makes object public)
  • media_downloader_uploader calls the download function and passes result to upload function
def download_file(url):
r = requests.get(url, allow_redirects=True)
file_name = os.path.basename(urlparse(url).path)
open(file_name, "wb").write(r.content)
return file_name

def upload_file(file_path):
global TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKET
s3_client = boto3.client("s3")
file_name = os.path.basename(file_path)
try:
extra_args = {
"ContentType": "application/octet-stream",
"ACL": "public-read"
}
s3_client.upload_file(
file_path,
TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKET,
file_name,
ExtraArgs=extra_args)
except ClientError as e:
print("Error uploading file to S3")
print(e)
quit()
return f"https://{TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKET}.s3.amazonaws.com/{file_name}"

def media_downloader_uploader(url):
file_location = download_file(url)
file_url = upload_file(file_location)
return file_url

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Inbound message handling

Now that we have the functions to manage the media, we can start receiving inbound MMS's

The flow of our function is (at a high level):

  1. Extract relevant information from the webhook
  2. Build the webhook_url to direct the DLR to a new endpoint
  3. Iterate over any attachments/media and call our media_downloader_uploader function
  4. Send the outbound message back to the original sender with the media attachments
@app.route("/messaging/inbound", methods=["POST"])
def inbound_message():
body = json.loads(request.data)
message_id = body["data"]["payload"]["id"]
print(f"Received inbound message with ID: {message_id}")
dlr_url = urlunsplit((
request.scheme,
request.host,
"/messaging/outbound",
"", ""))
to_number = body["data"]["payload"]["to"][0]["phone_number"]
from_number = body["data"]["payload"]["from"]["phone_number"]
medias = body["data"]["payload"]["media"]
media_urls = list(map(lambda media: media_downloader_uploader(media["url"]), medias))
try:
telnyx_response = telnyx.Message.create(
from_=to_number,
to=from_number,
text="👋 Hello World",
media_urls=media_urls,
webhook_url=dlr_url,
use_profile_webhooks=False
)
print(f"Sent message with id: {telnyx_response.id}")
except Exception as e:
print("Error sending message")
print(e)
return Response(status=200)

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Outbound message handling

As we defined our webhook_url path to be /messaging/outbound we'll need to create a function that accepts a POST request to that path within messaging.js.

@app.route("/messaging/outbound", methods=["POST"])
def outbound_message():
body = json.loads(request.data)
message_id = body["data"]["payload"]["id"]
print(f"Received message DLR with ID: {message_id}")
return Response(status=200)

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Final app.py

All together the app.py should look something like:

import telnyx
import os
from urllib.parse import urlunsplit, urlparse
import json
import requests
import boto3
from botocore.exceptions import ClientError
from flask import Flask, request, Response
from dotenv import load_dotenv

app = Flask(__name__)

def download_file(url):
r = requests.get(url, allow_redirects=True)
file_name = os.path.basename(urlparse(url).path)
open(file_name, "wb").write(r.content)
return file_name

def upload_file(file_path):
global TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKET
s3_client = boto3.client("s3")
file_name = os.path.basename(file_path)
try:
extra_args = {
"ContentType": "application/octet-stream",
"ACL": "public-read"
}
s3_client.upload_file(
file_path,
TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKET,
file_name,
ExtraArgs=extra_args)
except ClientError as e:
print("Error uploading file to S3")
print(e)
quit()
return f"https://{TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKET}.s3.amazonaws.com/{file_name}"

def media_downloader_uploader(url):
file_location = download_file(url)
file_url = upload_file(file_location)
return file_url

@app.route("/messaging/inbound", methods=["POST"])
def inbound_message():
body = json.loads(request.data)
message_id = body["data"]["payload"]["id"]
print(f"Received inbound message with ID: {message_id}")
dlr_url = urlunsplit((
request.scheme,
request.host,
"/messaging/outbound",
"", ""))
to_number = body["data"]["payload"]["to"][0]["phone_number"]
from_number = body["data"]["payload"]["from"]["phone_number"]
medias = body["data"]["payload"]["media"]
media_urls = list(map(lambda media: media_downloader_uploader(media["url"]), medias))
try:
telnyx_response = telnyx.Message.create(
from_=to_number,
to=from_number,
text="👋 Hello World",
media_urls=media_urls,
webhook_url=dlr_url,
use_profile_webhooks=False
)
print(f"Sent message with id: {telnyx_response.id}")
except Exception as e:
print("Error sending message")
print(e)
return Response(status=200)

@app.route("/messaging/outbound", methods=["POST"])
def outbound_message():
body = json.loads(request.data)
message_id = body["data"]["payload"]["id"]
print(f"Received message DLR with ID: {message_id}")
return Response(status=200)

if __name__ == "__main__":
load_dotenv()
TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKET = os.getenv("TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKET")
telnyx.api_key = os.getenv("TELNYX_API_KEY")
TELNYX_APP_PORT = os.getenv("TELNYX_APP_PORT")
app.run(port=TELNYX_APP_PORT)

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Usage

Start the server python app.py

When you are able to run the server locally, the final step involves making your application accessible from the internet. So far, we've set up a local web server. This is typically not accessible from the public internet, making testing inbound requests to web applications difficult.

The best workaround is a tunneling service. They come with client software that runs on your computer and opens an outgoing permanent connection to a publicly available server in a data center. Then, they assign a public URL (typically on a random or custom subdomain) on that server to your account. The public server acts as a proxy that accepts incoming connections to your URL, forwards (tunnels) them through the already established connection and sends them to the local web server as if they originated from the same machine. The most popular tunneling tool is ngrok. Check out the ngrok setup walkthrough to set it up on your computer and start receiving webhooks from inbound messages to your newly created application.

Once you've set up ngrok or another tunneling service you can add the public proxy URL to your Inbound Settings in the Mission Control Portal. To do this, click the edit symbol [✎] next to your Messaging Profile. In the "Inbound Settings" > "Webhook URL" field, paste the forwarding address from ngrok into the Webhook URL field. Add messaging/inbound to the end of the URL to direct the request to the webhook endpoint in your server.

For now you'll leave “Failover URL” blank, but if you'd like to have Telnyx resend the webhook in the case where sending to the Webhook URL fails, you can specify an alternate address in this field.

Callback URLs For Telnyx Applications
Callback TypeURL
Inbound Message Callback{ngrok-url}/messaging/inbound
Outbound Message Status Callback{ngrok-url}/messaging/outbound

Once everything is setup, you should now be able to:

  • Text your phone number and receive a response!
  • Send a picture to your phone number and get that same picture right back!

PHP

30 minutes build time

Introduction to MMS

Telnyx's messaging API supports both MMS and SMS messsages. Inbound multimedia messaging (MMS) messages include an attachment link in the webhook. The link and corresponding media should be treated as ephemeral and you should save any important media to a media storage (such as AWS S3) of your own.

What you can do with this Tutorial

At the end of this tutorial you'll have an application that:

  • Receives an inbound message (SMS or MMS)
  • Iterates over any media attachments and downloads the remote attachment locally
  • Uploads the same attachment to AWS S3
  • Sends the attachments back to the same phone number that originally sent the message

Pre-reqs & technologies for MMS

Setup Your MMS Application

Telnyx Portal configuration

Be sure to have a Messaging Profile with a phone number enabled for SMS & MMS and webhook URL pointing to your service (using ngrok or similar)

Install packages via composer

composer require vlucas/phpdotenv
composer require telnyx/telnyx-php
composer require slim/http
composer require slim/psr7
composer require slim/slim
composer require aws/aws-sdk-php
composer require jakeasmith/http_build_url

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This will create composer.json file with the packages needed to run the application.

Setting environment variables

The following environmental variables need to be set

VariableDescription
TELNYX_API_KEYYour Telnyx API Key
TELNYX_PUBLIC_KEYYour Telnyx Public Key
TELNYX_APP_PORTDefaults to 8000 The port the app will be served
AWS_PROFILEYour AWS profile as set in ~/.aws
AWS_REGIONThe region of your S3 bucket
TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKETThe name of the bucket to upload the media attachments

.env file

This app uses the excellent phpenv package to manage environment variables.

Make a copy of the file below, add your credentials, and save as .env in the root directory.

TELNYX_API_KEY=
TELNYX_PUBLIC_KEY=
TENYX_APP_PORT=8000
AWS_PROFILE=
AWS_REGION=
TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKET=

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Code-along

Now create a folder public and a file in the public folderindex.php, then write the following to setup the telnyx library.

mkdir public
touch public/index.php

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Setup Slim Server and instantiate Telnyx

<?php

use Psr\Http\Message\ResponseInterface as Response;
use Psr\Http\Message\ServerRequestInterface as Request;
use Psr\Http\Server\RequestHandlerInterface as RequestHandler;
use Slim\Factory\AppFactory;
use Telnyx\Message;
use Telnyx\Webhook;
use Aws\S3\S3Client;
use Aws\S3\Exception\S3Exception;

require __DIR__ . '/../vendor/autoload.php';

$dotenv = Dotenv\Dotenv::createImmutable(__DIR__, '../.env');
$dotenv->load();

$TELNYX_API_KEY = $_ENV['TELNYX_API_KEY'];
$TELNYX_PUBLIC_KEY = $_ENV['TELNYX_PUBLIC_KEY'];
$AWS_REGION = $_ENV['AWS_REGION'];
$TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKET = $_ENV['TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKET'];
$AWS_PROFILE = $_ENV['AWS_PROFILE'];

Telnyx\Telnyx::setApiKey($TELNYX_API_KEY);
Telnyx\Telnyx::setPublicKey($TELNYX_PUBLIC_KEY);
// Instantiate App
$app = AppFactory::create();

// Add error middleware
$app->addErrorMiddleware(true, true, true);

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Receiving Webhooks for SMS & MMS

Now that you have setup your auth token, phone number, and connection, you can begin to use the API Library to send/receive SMS & MMS messages. First, you will need to setup an endpoint to receive webhooks for inbound messages & outbound message Delivery Receipts (DLR).

Basic routing & functions

The basic overview of the application is as follows:

  1. Verify webhook & create TelnyxEvent
  2. Extract information from the webhook
  3. Iterate over any media and download/re-upload to S3 for each attachment
  4. Send the message back to the phone number from which it came
  5. Acknowledge the status update (DLR) of the outbound message
Webhook validation middleware

Telnyx signs each webhook that can be validated by checking the signature with your public key. This example adds the verification step as middleware to be included on all Telnyx endpoints.

//Callback signature verification
$telnyxWebhookVerify = function (Request $request, RequestHandler $handler) {
//Extract the raw contents
$payload = $request->getBody()->getContents();
//Grab the signature
$sigHeader = $request->getHeader('HTTP_TELNYX_SIGNATURE_ED25519')[0];
//Grab the timestamp
$timeStampHeader = $request->getHeader('HTTP_TELNYX_TIMESTAMP')[0];
//Construct the Telnyx event which will validate the signature and timestamp
$telnyxEvent = \Telnyx\Webhook::constructEvent($payload, $sigHeader, $timeStampHeader);
//Add the event object to the request to keep context for future middleware
$request = $request->withAttribute('telnyxEvent', $telnyxEvent);
//Send to next middleware
$response = $handler->handle($request);
//return response back to Telnyx
return $response;
};

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ℹ️ For more details on middleware see Slim's documentation on Route Middleware

Media Download & Upload Functions

Before diving into the inbound message handler, first we'll create a few functions to manage our attachments.

  • downloadMedia saves the content from a URL to disk
  • uploadMedia uploads the file passed to AWS S3 (and makes object public)
  • downloadUpload accepts an object and calls both the downloadMedia & uploadMedia returning the final S3 URL
function downloadMedia(String $url){
$fileName = basename($url);
file_put_contents($fileName,file_get_contents($url));
return $fileName;
}

function uploadMedia(String $fileLocation){
global $AWS_REGION, $TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKET;
$s3 = new S3Client([
'version' => 'latest',
'region' => $AWS_REGION
]);
$keyName = basename($fileLocation);
try {
// Upload data.
$result = $s3->putObject([
'Bucket' => $TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKET,
'Key' => $keyName,
'SourceFile' => $fileLocation,
'ACL' => 'public-read'
]);

// The URL to the object.
$url = $result['ObjectURL'];
return $url;
} catch (S3Exception $e) {
echo $e->getMessage() . PHP_EOL;
}
}

function downloadUpload($media) {
$fileLocation = downloadMedia($media['url']);
$mediaUrl = uploadMedia($fileLocation);
return $mediaUrl;
}

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Inbound message handling

Now that we have the functions to manage the media, we can start receiving inbound MMS's

The flow of our function is (at a high level):

  1. Extract relevant information from the webhook
  2. Build the webhook_url to direct the DLR to a new endpoint
  3. Iterate over any attachments/media and call our downloadUpload function
  4. Send the outbound message back to the original sender with the media attachments
$app->post('/messaging/inbound', function (Request $request, Response $response) {
$body = $request->getParsedBody();
$payload = $body['data']['payload'];
$toNumber = $payload['to'][0]['phone_number'];
$fromNumber = $payload['from']['phone_number'];
$medias = $payload['media'];
$dlrUrl = http_build_url([
'scheme' => $request->getUri()->getScheme(),
'host' => $request->getUri()->getHost(),
'path' => '/messaging/outbound'
]);
$mediaUrls = array_map('downloadUpload', $medias);
try {
$new_message = Message::Create([
'from' => $toNumber,
'to' => $fromNumber,
'text' => 'Hello, world!',
'media_urls' => $mediaUrls,
'use_profile_webhooks' => false,
'webhook_url' => $dlrUrl
]);
$messageId = $new_message->id;
echo 'Sent message with ID: ', $messageId;
}
catch (Exception $e) {
echo 'Caught exception: ', $e->getMessage(), "\n";
}
return $response->withStatus(200);
})->add($telnyxWebhookVerify);

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Inbound Message Handling

As we defined our webhook_url path to be /messaging/outbound we'll need to create a function that accepts a POST request to that path.

$app->post('/messaging/outbound', function (Request $request, Response $response) {
// Handle outbound DLR
return $response->withStatus(200);
})->add($telnyxWebhookVerify);

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Final index.php

All together the PHP samples should look something like:

<?php

use Psr\Http\Message\ResponseInterface as Response;
use Psr\Http\Message\ServerRequestInterface as Request;
use Psr\Http\Server\RequestHandlerInterface as RequestHandler;
use Slim\Factory\AppFactory;
use Telnyx\Message;
use Telnyx\Webhook;
use Aws\S3\S3Client;
use Aws\S3\Exception\S3Exception;

require __DIR__ . '/../vendor/autoload.php';

$dotenv = Dotenv\Dotenv::createImmutable(__DIR__, '../.env');
$dotenv->load();

$TELNYX_API_KEY = $_ENV['TELNYX_API_KEY'];
$TELNYX_PUBLIC_KEY = $_ENV['TELNYX_PUBLIC_KEY'];
$AWS_REGION = $_ENV['AWS_REGION'];
$TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKET = $_ENV['TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKET'];
$AWS_PROFILE = $_ENV['AWS_PROFILE'];

Telnyx\Telnyx::setApiKey($TELNYX_API_KEY);
Telnyx\Telnyx::setPublicKey($TELNYX_PUBLIC_KEY);
// Instantiate App
$app = AppFactory::create();

// Add error middleware
$app->addErrorMiddleware(true, true, true);

//Callback signature verification
$telnyxWebhookVerify = function (Request $request, RequestHandler $handler) {
$payload = $request->getBody()->getContents();
$sigHeader = $request->getHeader('HTTP_TELNYX_SIGNATURE_ED25519')[0];
$timeStampHeader = $request->getHeader('HTTP_TELNYX_TIMESTAMP')[0];
$telnyxEvent = Webhook::constructEvent($payload, $sigHeader, $timeStampHeader);
$request = $request->withAttribute('telnyxEvent', $telnyxEvent);
$response = $handler->handle($request);
return $response;
};

function downloadMedia(String $url){
$fileName = basename($url);
file_put_contents($fileName,file_get_contents($url));
return $fileName;
}

function uploadMedia(String $fileLocation){
global $AWS_REGION, $TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKET;
$s3 = new S3Client([
'version' => 'latest',
'region' => $AWS_REGION
]);
$keyName = basename($fileLocation);
try {
// Upload data.
$result = $s3->putObject([
'Bucket' => $TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKET,
'Key' => $keyName,
'SourceFile' => $fileLocation,
'ACL' => 'public-read'
]);

// Print the URL to the object.
$url = $result['ObjectURL'];
return $url;
} catch (S3Exception $e) {
echo $e->getMessage() . PHP_EOL;
}
}

function downloadUpload($media) {
$fileLocation = downloadMedia($media['url']);
$mediaUrl = uploadMedia($fileLocation);
return $mediaUrl;
}

// Add routes
$app->post('/messaging/inbound', function (Request $request, Response $response) {
$body = $request->getParsedBody();
$payload = $body['data']['payload'];
$toNumber = $payload['to'][0]['phone_number'];
$fromNumber = $payload['from']['phone_number'];
$medias = $payload['media'];
$dlrUrl = http_build_url([
'scheme' => $request->getUri()->getScheme(),
'host' => $request->getUri()->getHost(),
'path' => '/messaging/outbound'
]);
$mediaUrls = array_map('downloadUpload', $medias);
try {
$new_message = Message::Create([
'from' => $toNumber,
'to' => $fromNumber,
'text' => 'Hello, world!',
'media_urls' => $mediaUrls,
'use_profile_webhooks' => false,
'webhook_url' => $dlrUrl
]);
$messageId = $new_message->id;
echo 'Sent message with ID: ', $messageId;
}
catch (Exception $e) {
echo 'Caught exception: ', $e->getMessage(), "\n";
}
return $response->withStatus(200);
})->add($telnyxWebhookVerify);

$app->post('/messaging/outbound', function (Request $request, Response $response) {
// Handle outbound DLR
return $response->withStatus(200);
})->add($telnyxWebhookVerify);
$app->run();

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Usage

Start the server php -S localhost:8000 -t public

When you are able to run the server locally, the final step involves making your application accessible from the internet. So far, we've set up a local web server. This is typically not accessible from the public internet, making testing inbound requests to web applications difficult.

The best workaround is a tunneling service. They come with client software that runs on your computer and opens an outgoing permanent connection to a publicly available server in a data center. Then, they assign a public URL (typically on a random or custom subdomain) on that server to your account. The public server acts as a proxy that accepts incoming connections to your URL, forwards (tunnels) them through the already established connection and sends them to the local web server as if they originated from the same machine. The most popular tunneling tool is ngrok. Check out the ngrok setup walkthrough to set it up on your computer and start receiving webhooks from inbound messages to your newly created application.

Once you've set up ngrok or another tunneling service you can add the public proxy URL to your Inbound Settings in the Mission Control Portal. To do this, click the edit symbol [✎] next to your Messaging Profile. In the "Inbound Settings" > "Webhook URL" field, paste the forwarding address from ngrok into the Webhook URL field. Add messaging/inbound to the end of the URL to direct the request to the webhook endpoint in your slim-php server.

For now you'll leave “Failover URL” blank, but if you'd like to have Telnyx resend the webhook in the case where sending to the Webhook URL fails, you can specify an alternate address in this field.

Callback URLs For Telnyx Applications
Callback TypeURL
Inbound Message Callback{ngrok-url}/messaging/inbound
Outbound Message Status Callback{ngrok-url}/messaging/outbound

Once everything is setup, you should now be able to:

  • Text your phone number and receive a response!
  • Send a picture to your phone number and get that same picture right back!

Node

30 minutes build time || Github Repo

Introduction

Telnyx's messaging API supports both MMS and SMS messsages. Inbound multimedia messaging (MMS) messages include an attachment link in the webhook. The link and corresponding media should be treated as ephemeral and you should save any important media to a media storage (such as AWS S3) of your own.

What you can do

At the end of this tutorial you'll have an application that:

  • Receives an inbound message (SMS or MMS)
  • Iterates over any media attachments and downloads the remote attachment locally
  • Uploads the same attachment to AWS S3
  • Sends the attachments back to the same phone number that originally sent the message

Pre-reqs & technologies

Setup

Telnyx portal configuration

Be sure to have a Messaging Profile with a phone number enabled for SMS & MMS and webhook URL pointing to your service (using ngrok or similar)

Install packages via NPM

npm i aws-sdk
npm i axios
npm i dotenv
npm i express
npm i telnyx

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This will create package.json file with the packages needed to run the application.

Setting environment variables

The following environmental variables need to be set

VariableDescription
TELNYX_API_KEYYour Telnyx API Key
TELNYX_PUBLIC_KEYYour Telnyx Public Key
TELNYX_APP_PORTDefaults to 8000 The port the app will be served
AWS_PROFILEYour AWS profile as set in ~/.aws
AWS_REGIONThe region of your S3 bucket
TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKETThe name of the bucket to upload the media attachments

.env file

This app uses the excellent dotenv package to manage environment variables.

Make a copy of the file below, add your credentials, and save as .env in the root directory.

TELNYX_API_KEY=
TELNYX_PUBLIC_KEY=
TENYX_APP_PORT=8000
AWS_PROFILE=
AWS_REGION=
TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKET=

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Code-along

We'll use a few .js files to build the MMS application. index.js as our entry point and messaging.js to contain our routes and controllers for the app.

touch index.js
touch messaging.js

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Setup Express Server

// In index.js
require('dotenv').config()

const express = require('express');
const config = require('./config');
const telnyx = require('telnyx')(config.TELNYX_API_KEY);

const messaging = require('./messaging');

const app = express();

app.use(express.json());

app.use('/messaging', messaging);

app.listen(config.TELNYX_APP_PORT);
console.log(`Server listening on port ${config.TELNYX_APP_PORT}`);

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Receiving Webhooks

Now that you have setup your auth token, phone number, and connection, you can begin to use the API Library to send/receive SMS & MMS messages. First, you will need to setup an endpoint to receive webhooks for inbound messages & outbound message Delivery Receipts (DLR).

Basic routing & functions

The basic overview of the application is as follows:

  1. Verify webhook & create TelnyxEvent
  2. Extract information from the webhook
  3. Iterate over any media and download/re-upload to S3 for each attachment
  4. Send the message back to the phone number from which it came
  5. Acknowledge the status update (DLR) of the outbound message

Webhook validation middleware

Telnyx signs each webhook that can be validated by checking the signature with your public key. This example adds the verification step as middleware to be included on all Telnyx endpoints.

After declaring the const app=express(); and before app.use('/messaging', messaging); add the following code to validate the webhook in indeed from Telnyx.

// in index.js
const webhookValidator = (req, res, next) => {
try {
telnyx.webhooks.constructEvent(
JSON.stringify(req.body, null, 2),
req.header('telnyx-signature-ed25519'),
req.header('telnyx-timestamp'),
config.TELNYX_PUBLIC_KEY
)
next();
return;
}
catch (e) {
console.log(`Invalid webhook: ${e.message}`);
return res.status(400).send(`Webhook Error: ${e.message}`);
}
};

app.use(webhookValidator);

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Media Download & Upload Functions

Before diving into the inbound message handler, first we'll create a few functions to manage our attachments inside the messaging.js file.

  • downloadFile saves the content from a URL to disk
  • uploadFile uploads the file passed to AWS S3 (and makes object public)
  • Note that this application is demonstrating 2 topics at once, downloading & uploading. It could be improved by piping or streaming the data from Telnyx to S3 instead of saving to disk.
// In messaging.js
const express = require('express');
const config = require('./config');
const fs = require('fs');
const axios = require('axios');
const AWS = require('aws-sdk');
const path = require('path');
AWS.config.update({region: config.AWS_REGION});

const telnyx = require('telnyx')(config.TELNYX_API_KEY);
const router = module.exports = express.Router();
const url = require('url');

const uploadFile = async filePath => {
const s3 = new AWS.S3({apiVersion: '2006-03-01'});
const bucketName = config.TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKET;
const fileName = path.basename(filePath);
const fileStream = fs.createReadStream(filePath);
return new Promise(async (resolve, reject) => {
fileStream.once('error', reject);
try {
const s3UploadParams = {
Bucket: bucketName,
Key: fileName,
Body: fileStream,
ACL: 'public-read'
}
await s3.upload(s3UploadParams).promise();
resolve(`https://${bucketName}.s3.amazonaws.com/${fileName}`);
}
catch (e) {
reject(e);
}
});
};

const downloadFile = async url => {
const fileLocation = path.resolve(__dirname, url.substring(url.lastIndexOf('/')+1));
const response = await axios({
method: "get",
url: url,
responseType: "stream"
});
response.data.pipe(fs.createWriteStream(fileLocation));
return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
response.data.on('end', () => {resolve(fileLocation)} );
response.data.on('error', reject);
});
};

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Inbound message handling

Now that we have the functions to manage the media, we can start receiving inbound MMS's

The flow of our function is (at a high level):

  1. Extract relevant information from the webhook
  2. Build the webhook_url to direct the DLR to a new endpoint
  3. Iterate over any attachments/media and call our download & upload functions
  4. Send the outbound message back to the original sender with the media attachments
// In messaging.js
const inboundMessageController = async (req, res) => {
res.sendStatus(200); // Play nice and respond to webhook
const event = req.body.data;
console.log(`Received inbound message with ID: ${event.payload.id}`)
const dlrUrl = (new URL('/messaging/outbound', `${req.protocol}://${req.hostname}`)).href;
const toNumber = event.payload.to[0].phone_number;
const fromNumber = event.payload['from'].phone_number;
const medias = event.payload.media;
const mediaPromises = medias.map(async media => {
const fileName = await downloadFile(media.url)
return uploadFile(fileName);
});
const mediaUrls = await Promise.all(mediaPromises);
try {
const messageRequest = {
from: toNumber,
to: fromNumber,
text: '👋 Hello World',
media_urls: mediaUrls,
webhook_url: dlrUrl,
use_profile_webhooks: false
}
const telnyxResponse = await telnyx.messages.create(messageRequest);
console.log(`Sent message with id: ${telnyxResponse.data.id}`);
}
catch (e) {
console.log('Error sending message');
console.log(e);
}

};

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Outbound message handling

As we defined our webhook_url path to be /messaging/outbound we'll need to create a function that accepts a POST request to that path within messaging.js.

// In messaging.js
const outboundMessageController = async (req, res) => {
res.sendStatus(200); // Play nice and respond to webhook
const event = req.body.data;
console.log(`Received message DLR with ID: ${event.payload.id}`)
};

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Decare routes for inbound and outbound messaging

At the bottom of messaging.js add the routes and point to the correct controller function

router.route('/inbound')
.post(inboundMessageController);

router.route('/outbound')
.post(outboundMessageController);

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Final index.js

All together the index.js should look something like:

require('dotenv').config()

const express = require('express');
const config = require('./config');
const telnyx = require('telnyx')(config.TELNYX_API_KEY);

const messaging = require('./messaging');

const app = express();

const webhookValidator = (req, res, next) => {
try {
telnyx.webhooks.constructEvent(
JSON.stringify(req.body, null, 2),
req.header('telnyx-signature-ed25519'),
req.header('telnyx-timestamp'),
config.TELNYX_PUBLIC_KEY
)
next();
return;
}
catch (e) {
console.log(`Invalid webhook: ${e.message}`);
return res.status(400).send(`Webhook Error: ${e.message}`);
}
}

app.use(express.json());
app.use(webhookValidator);

app.use('/messaging', messaging);

app.listen(config.TELNYX_APP_PORT);
console.log(`Server listening on port ${config.TELNYX_APP_PORT}`);

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Final messaging.js

const express  = require('express');
const config = require('./config');
const fs = require('fs');
const axios = require('axios');
const AWS = require('aws-sdk');
const path = require('path');
AWS.config.update({region: config.AWS_REGION});

const telnyx = require('telnyx')(config.TELNYX_API_KEY);
const router = module.exports = express.Router();
const url = require('url');

const toBase64 = data => (new Buffer.from(data)).toString('base64');
const fromBase64 = data => (new Buffer.from(data, 'base64')).toString();

const outboundMessageController = async (req, res) => {
res.sendStatus(200); // Play nice and respond to webhook
const event = req.body.data;
console.log(`Received message DLR with ID: ${event.payload.id}`)
}

const uploadFile = async filePath => {
const s3 = new AWS.S3({apiVersion: '2006-03-01'});
const bucketName = config.TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKET;
const fileName = path.basename(filePath);
const fileStream = fs.createReadStream(filePath);
return new Promise(async (resolve, reject) => {
fileStream.once('error', reject);
try {
const s3UploadParams = {
Bucket: bucketName,
Key: fileName,
Body: fileStream,
ACL: 'public-read'
}
await s3.upload(s3UploadParams).promise();
resolve(`https://${bucketName}.s3.amazonaws.com/${fileName}`);
}
catch (e) {
reject(e);
}
});
};

const downloadFile = async url => {
const fileLocation = path.resolve(__dirname, url.substring(url.lastIndexOf('/')+1));
const response = await axios({
method: "get",
url: url,
responseType: "stream"
});
response.data.pipe(fs.createWriteStream(fileLocation));
return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
response.data.on('end', () => {resolve(fileLocation)} );
response.data.on('error', reject);
});
};

const inboundMessageController = async (req, res) => {
res.sendStatus(200); // Play nice and respond to webhook
const event = req.body.data;
console.log(`Received inbound message with ID: ${event.payload.id}`)
const dlrUrl = (new URL('/messaging/outbound', `${req.protocol}://${req.hostname}`)).href;
const toNumber = event.payload.to[0].phone_number;
const fromNumber = event.payload['from'].phone_number;
const medias = event.payload.media;
const mediaPromises = medias.map(async media => {
const fileName = await downloadFile(media.url)
return uploadFile(fileName);
});
const mediaUrls = await Promise.all(mediaPromises);
try {
const messageRequest = {
from: toNumber,
to: fromNumber,
text: '👋 Hello World',
media_urls: mediaUrls,
webhook_url: dlrUrl,
use_profile_webhooks: false
}

const telnyxResponse = await telnyx.messages.create(messageRequest);
console.log(`Sent message with id: ${telnyxResponse.data.id}`);
}
catch (e) {
console.log('Error sending message');
console.log(e);
}

}

router.route('/inbound')
.post(inboundMessageController);

router.route('/outbound')
.post(outboundMessageController);

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Usage

Start the server node index.js

When you are able to run the server locally, the final step involves making your application accessible from the internet. So far, we've set up a local web server. This is typically not accessible from the public internet, making testing inbound requests to web applications difficult.

The best workaround is a tunneling service. They come with client software that runs on your computer and opens an outgoing permanent connection to a publicly available server in a data center. Then, they assign a public URL (typically on a random or custom subdomain) on that server to your account. The public server acts as a proxy that accepts incoming connections to your URL, forwards (tunnels) them through the already established connection and sends them to the local web server as if they originated from the same machine. The most popular tunneling tool is ngrok. Check out the ngrok setup walkthrough to set it up on your computer and start receiving webhooks from inbound messages to your newly created application.

Once you've set up ngrok or another tunneling service you can add the public proxy URL to your Inbound Settings in the Mission Control Portal. To do this, click the edit symbol [✎] next to your Messaging Profile. In the "Inbound Settings" > "Webhook URL" field, paste the forwarding address from ngrok into the Webhook URL field. Add messaging/inbound to the end of the URL to direct the request to the webhook endpoint in your server.

For now you'll leave “Failover URL” blank, but if you'd like to have Telnyx resend the webhook in the case where sending to the Webhook URL fails, you can specify an alternate address in this field.

Callback URLs For Telnyx Applications
Callback TypeURL
Inbound Message Callback{ngrok-url}/messaging/inbound
Outbound Message Status Callback{ngrok-url}/messaging/outbound

Once everything is setup, you should now be able to:

  • Text your phone number and receive a response!
  • Send a picture to your phone number and get that same picture right back!

.NET

30 minutes build time

Introduction

Telnyx's messaging API supports both MMS and SMS messsages. Inbound multimedia messaging (MMS) messages include an attachment link in the webhook. The link and corresponding media should be treated as ephemeral and you should save any important media to a media storage (such as AWS S3) of your own.

What you can do

At the end of this tutorial you'll have an application that:

  • Receives an inbound message (SMS or MMS)
  • Iterates over any media attachments and downloads the remote attachment locally
  • Uploads the same attachment to AWS S3
  • Sends the attachments back to the same phone number that originally sent the message

Pre-reqs & technologies

  • Completed or familiar with the Receiving SMS & MMS Quickstart
  • A working Messaging Profile with a phone number enabled for SMS & MMS.
  • Ability to receive webhooks (with something like ngrok )
  • DotNet Core installed
  • AWS Account setup with proper profiles and groups with IAM for S3. See the Quickstart for more information.
  • Previously created S3 bucket with public permissions available.

Setup

Telnyx Portal configuration

Be sure to have a Messaging Profile with a phone number enabled for SMS & MMS and webhook URL pointing to your service (using ngrok or similar)

Create a new dotnet core project

Create a new web project and set the output to mms-demo

$ dotnet new web -o mms-demo
$ cd mms-demo

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Install packages via dotnet CLI

$ dotnet add package AWSSDK.S3
$ dotnet add package dotenv.net
$ dotnet add package Telnyx.net
$ dotnet add package Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc.NewtonsoftJson

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This will add the requirements to the .csproj file with the packages needed to run the application.

Setting environment variables

The following environmental variables need to be set

VariableDescription
TELNYX_API_KEYYour Telnyx API Key
TELNYX_PUBLIC_KEYYour Telnyx Public Key
TELNYX_APP_PORTDefaults to 8000 The port the app will be served
AWS_PROFILEYour AWS profile as set in ~/.aws
AWS_REGIONThe region of your S3 bucket
TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKETThe name of the bucket to upload the media attachments

.env file

This app uses the excellent dotenv.net package to manage environment variables.

Make a copy of the file below, add your credentials, and save as .env in the root directory.

TELNYX_API_KEY=
TELNYX_PUBLIC_KEY=
TENYX_APP_PORT=8000
AWS_PROFILE=
AWS_REGION=
TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKET=

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Code-along

The dotnet new web -o mms-demo command scaffolds out a basic ASP.NET Core project structure with a few files and folders. We're focused mainly on:

  • Program.cs
  • Startup.cs

We'll also need a Controllers folder and a Controller to handle our webhooks from Telnyx.

$ mkdir Controllers
$ touch Controllers/TelnyxMessagingController.cs

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Modify Startup.cs to include controllers

Update the ConfigureServices function to use the Controllers function and the NewtonsoftJSON library.

public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
{
services.AddControllers().AddNewtonsoftJson();
}

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Update the Configure function to map the controllers. In the app.UseEndpoints() method add endpoints.MapControllers(); so your Configure function looks like:

public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, IWebHostEnvironment env)
{
if (env.IsDevelopment())
{
app.UseDeveloperExceptionPage();
}

app.UseRouting();

app.UseEndpoints(endpoints =>
{
endpoints.MapGet("/", async context =>
{
await context.Response.WriteAsync("Hello World!");
});

endpoints.MapControllers();

});
}

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Modify Program.cs

Update the Main function to call the DotEnv.Config(); function to load the values in the .env file to Environment variables.

  • Be sure to add using dotenv.net;
public static void Main(string[] args)
{
DotEnv.Config();
CreateHostBuilder(args).Build().Run();
}

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Update the CreateHostBuilder function to launch on the port as defined in the .env file:

public static IHostBuilder CreateHostBuilder(string[] args) =>
Host.CreateDefaultBuilder(args)
.ConfigureWebHostDefaults(webBuilder =>
{
string Port = Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable("TELNYX_APP_PORT");
webBuilder.UseStartup<Startup>();
string[] urls = new string[] {$"http://localhost:{Port}", "https://localhost:8001"};
webBuilder.UseUrls(urls);
});

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Receiving Webhooks

Now that the basic app structure is setup, we need to create the Controller to receive webhooks for inbound messages & outbound message Delivery Receipts (DLR).

TelnyxMessagingController.cs Scaffold

Build out the controller to look something like the example below. The example includes all the packages the rest of the controller code will leverage.

using System;
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
using System.IO;
using Newtonsoft.Json;
using System.Net.Http;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using Telnyx;
using Telnyx.net.Entities;
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Http;
using Amazon.S3;
using Amazon.S3.Model;
using Amazon.S3.Transfer;
using Amazon;

namespace mms_demo.Controllers
{
[ApiController]
[Route("messaging/[controller]")]
public class OutboundController : ControllerBase
{
// POST messaging/Inbound
[HttpPost]
[Consumes("application/json")]
public async Task<string> MessageDLRCallback()
{

}
}

[ApiController]
[Route("messaging/[controller]")]
public class InboundController : ControllerBase
{
// POST messaging/Inbound
[HttpPost]
[Consumes("application/json")]
public async Task<string> MessageInboundCallback()
{

}
}
}

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Basic Routing & Functions

The basic overview of the application is as follows:

  1. Receive webhook & de-serialize JSON into a dynamic
  2. Extract information from the webhook
  3. Iterate over any media and download/re-upload to S3 for each attachment
  4. Send the message back to the phone number from which it came
  5. Acknowledge the status update (DLR) of the outbound message

Webhook Helpers & Media Download/Upload Functions

Before diving into the inbound message handler, first we'll create a few functions within a new class WebhookHelpers to manage our attachments.

  • deserializeCallbackToDynamic Reads JSON and returns a dynamic object.
  • UploadFileAsync uploads the file passed to AWS S3 (and makes object public)
  • downloadMediaAsync downloads the file to specified directory with the specified fileName
public class WebhookHelpers
{
public static async Task<dynamic> deserializeCallbackToDynamic(HttpRequest request){
string json;
using (var reader = new StreamReader(request.Body))
{
json = await reader.ReadToEndAsync();
}
dynamic webhook = JsonConvert.DeserializeObject<dynamic>(json);
return webhook;
}

public static async Task<String> UploadFileAsync(string filePath)
{
string bucketName = System.Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable("TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKET");
RegionEndpoint bucketRegion = RegionEndpoint.USEast2;
IAmazonS3 s3Client = new AmazonS3Client(bucketRegion);
TransferUtility fileTransferUtility = new TransferUtility(s3Client);
string fileName = System.IO.Path.GetFileName(filePath);
string mediaUrl = "";
try
{
TransferUtilityUploadRequest fileTransferUtilityRequest = new TransferUtilityUploadRequest
{
BucketName = bucketName,
FilePath = filePath,
CannedACL = S3CannedACL.PublicRead
};
await fileTransferUtility.UploadAsync(fileTransferUtilityRequest);
Console.WriteLine("Upload completed");
mediaUrl = $"https://{bucketName}.s3.amazonaws.com/{fileName}";
}
catch (AmazonS3Exception e)
{
Console.WriteLine("Error encountered on server. Message:'{0}' when writing an object", e.Message);
}
catch (Exception e)
{
Console.WriteLine("Unknown encountered on server. Message:'{0}' when writing an object", e.Message);
}
return mediaUrl;
}

public static async Task<string> downloadMediaAsync(string directoryPath, string fileName, Uri uri)
{
HttpClient httpClient = new HttpClient();
string uriWithoutQuery = uri.GetLeftPart(UriPartial.Path);
string fileExtension = Path.GetExtension(uriWithoutQuery);
string path = Path.Combine(directoryPath, $"{fileName}{fileExtension}");
Directory.CreateDirectory(directoryPath);
byte[] imageBytes = await httpClient.GetByteArrayAsync(uri);
await File.WriteAllBytesAsync(path, imageBytes);
return path;
}
}

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Inbound message handling

Now that we have the functions to manage the media, we can start receiving inbound MMS's

The flow of our function is (at a high level):

  1. Extract relevant information from the webhook
  2. Build the webhook_url to direct the DLR to a new endpoint
  3. Iterate over any attachments/media and call our media management function
  4. Send the outbound message back to the original sender with the media attachments
[ApiController]
[Route("messaging/[controller]")]
public class InboundController : ControllerBase
{
private string TELNYX_API_KEY = System.Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable("TELNYX_API_KEY");
// POST messaging/Inbound
[HttpPost]
[Consumes("application/json")]
public async Task<string> MessageInboundCallback()
{
dynamic webhook = await WebhookHelpers.deserializeCallbackToDynamic(this.Request);
UriBuilder uriBuilder = new UriBuilder(Request.Scheme, Request.Host.ToString());
uriBuilder.Path = "messaging/outbound";
string dlrUri = uriBuilder.ToString();
string to = webhook.data.payload.to[0].phone_number;
string from = webhook.data.payload.from.phone_number;
List<string> files = new List<string>();
List<string> mediaUrls = new List<string>();
if (webhook.data.payload.media != null)
{
foreach (var item in webhook.data.payload.media)
{
String url = item.url;
Uri uri = new Uri(url);
String fileName = item.hash_sha256;
string path = await WebhookHelpers.downloadMediaAsync("./", fileName, uri);
files.Add(path);
string mediaUrl = await WebhookHelpers.UploadFileAsync(path);
mediaUrls.Add(mediaUrl);
}
}
TelnyxConfiguration.SetApiKey(TELNYX_API_KEY);
MessagingSenderIdService service = new MessagingSenderIdService();
NewMessagingSenderId options = new NewMessagingSenderId
{
From = to,
To = from,
Text = "Hello, World!",
WebhookUrl = dlrUri,
UseProfileWebhooks = false,
MediaUrls = mediaUrls
};
MessagingSenderId messageResponse = await service.CreateAsync(options);
Console.WriteLine($"Sent message with ID: {messageResponse.Id}");
return "";
}
}

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Outbound message handling

As we defined our webhook_url path to be /messaging/outbound we'll need to create a function that accepts a POST request to that path within the controller.

[ApiController]
[Route("messaging/[controller]")]
public class OutboundController : ControllerBase
{
// POST messaging/Inbound
[HttpPost]
[Consumes("application/json")]
public async Task<string> MessageDLRCallback()
{
dynamic webhook = await WebhookHelpers.deserializeCallbackToDynamic(this.Request);
Console.WriteLine($"Received DLR for message with ID: {webhook.data.payload.id}");
return "";
}
}

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Final TelnyxMessagingController.cs

All together the TelnyxMessagingController.cs should look something like:

using System;
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
using System.IO;
using Newtonsoft.Json;
using System.Net.Http;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using Telnyx;
using Telnyx.net.Entities;
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Http;
using Amazon.S3;
using Amazon.S3.Model;
using Amazon.S3.Transfer;
using Amazon;

namespace dotnet_starter.Controllers
{
public class WebhookHelpers
{
public static async Task<dynamic> deserializeCallbackToDynamic(HttpRequest request){
string json;
using (var reader = new StreamReader(request.Body))
{
json = await reader.ReadToEndAsync();
}
dynamic webhook = JsonConvert.DeserializeObject<dynamic>(json);
return webhook;
}
public static async Task<String> UploadFileAsync(string filePath)
{
string bucketName = System.Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable("TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKET");
RegionEndpoint bucketRegion = RegionEndpoint.USEast2;
IAmazonS3 s3Client = new AmazonS3Client(bucketRegion);
TransferUtility fileTransferUtility = new TransferUtility(s3Client);
string fileName = System.IO.Path.GetFileName(filePath);
string mediaUrl = "";
try
{
TransferUtilityUploadRequest fileTransferUtilityRequest = new TransferUtilityUploadRequest
{
BucketName = bucketName,
FilePath = filePath,
CannedACL = S3CannedACL.PublicRead
};
await fileTransferUtility.UploadAsync(fileTransferUtilityRequest);
Console.WriteLine("Upload completed");
mediaUrl = $"https://{bucketName}.s3.amazonaws.com/{fileName}";
}
catch (AmazonS3Exception e)
{
Console.WriteLine("Error encountered on server. Message:'{0}' when writing an object", e.Message);
}
catch (Exception e)
{
Console.WriteLine("Unknown encountered on server. Message:'{0}' when writing an object", e.Message);
}
return mediaUrl;
}

public static async Task<string> downloadMediaAsync(string directoryPath, string fileName, Uri uri)
{
HttpClient httpClient = new HttpClient();
string uriWithoutQuery = uri.GetLeftPart(UriPartial.Path);
string fileExtension = Path.GetExtension(uriWithoutQuery);
string path = Path.Combine(directoryPath, $"{fileName}{fileExtension}");
Directory.CreateDirectory(directoryPath);
byte[] imageBytes = await httpClient.GetByteArrayAsync(uri);
await File.WriteAllBytesAsync(path, imageBytes);
return path;
}
}

[ApiController]
[Route("messaging/[controller]")]
public class OutboundController : ControllerBase
{
// POST messaging/Inbound
[HttpPost]
[Consumes("application/json")]
public async Task<string> MessageDLRCallback()
{
dynamic webhook = await WebhookHelpers.deserializeCallbackToDynamic(this.Request);
Console.WriteLine($"Received DLR for message with ID: {webhook.data.payload.id}");
return "";
}
}

[ApiController]
[Route("messaging/[controller]")]
public class InboundController : ControllerBase
{

private string TELNYX_API_KEY = System.Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable("TELNYX_API_KEY");
// POST messaging/Inbound
[HttpPost]
[Consumes("application/json")]
public async Task<string> MessageInboundCallback()
{
dynamic webhook = await WebhookHelpers.deserializeCallbackToDynamic(this.Request);
UriBuilder uriBuilder = new UriBuilder(Request.Scheme, Request.Host.ToString());
uriBuilder.Path = "messaging/outbound";
string dlrUri = uriBuilder.ToString();
string to = webhook.data.payload.to[0].phone_number;
string from = webhook.data.payload.from.phone_number;
List<string> files = new List<string>();
List<string> mediaUrls = new List<string>();
if (webhook.data.payload.media != null)
{
foreach (var item in webhook.data.payload.media)
{
String url = item.url;
Uri uri = new Uri(url);
String fileName = item.hash_sha256;
string path = await WebhookHelpers.downloadMediaAsync("./", fileName, uri);
files.Add(path);
string mediaUrl = await WebhookHelpers.UploadFileAsync(path);
mediaUrls.Add(mediaUrl);
}
}
TelnyxConfiguration.SetApiKey(TELNYX_API_KEY);
MessagingSenderIdService service = new MessagingSenderIdService();
NewMessagingSenderId options = new NewMessagingSenderId
{
From = to,
To = from,
Text = "Hello, World!",
WebhookUrl = dlrUri,
UseProfileWebhooks = false,
MediaUrls = mediaUrls
};
MessagingSenderId messageResponse = await service.CreateAsync(options);
Console.WriteLine($"Sent message with ID: {messageResponse.Id}");
return "";
}
}
}

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Usage

Start the server:

$ dotnet restore
$ dotnet build
$ dotnet run

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When you are able to run the server locally, the final step involves making your application accessible from the internet. So far, we've set up a local web server. This is typically not accessible from the public internet, making testing inbound requests to web applications difficult.

The best workaround is a tunneling service. They come with client software that runs on your computer and opens an outgoing permanent connection to a publicly available server in a data center. Then, they assign a public URL (typically on a random or custom subdomain) on that server to your account. The public server acts as a proxy that accepts incoming connections to your URL, forwards (tunnels) them through the already established connection and sends them to the local web server as if they originated from the same machine. The most popular tunneling tool is ngrok. Check out the ngrok setup walkthrough to set it up on your computer and start receiving webhooks from inbound messages to your newly created application.

Once you've set up ngrok or another tunneling service you can add the public proxy URL to your Inbound Settings in the Mission Control Portal. To do this, click the edit symbol [✎] next to your Messaging Profile. In the "Inbound Settings" > "Webhook URL" field, paste the forwarding address from ngrok into the Webhook URL field. Add messaging/inbound to the end of the URL to direct the request to the webhook endpoint in your server.

For now you'll leave “Failover URL” blank, but if you'd like to have Telnyx resend the webhook in the case where sending to the Webhook URL fails, you can specify an alternate address in this field.

Callback URLs For Telnyx Applications
Callback TypeURL
Inbound Message Callback{ngrok-url}/messaging/inbound
Outbound Message Status Callback{ngrok-url}/messaging/outbound

Once everything is setup, you should now be able to:

  • Text your phone number and receive a response!
  • Send a picture to your phone number and get that same picture right back!

Ruby

30 minutes build time

Introduction

Telnyx's messaging API supports both MMS and SMS messsages. Inbound multimedia messaging (MMS) messages include an attachment link in the webhook. The link and corresponding media should be treated as ephemeral and you should save any important media to a media storage (such as AWS S3) of your own.

What you can do

At the end of this tutorial you'll have an application that:

  • Receives an inbound message (SMS or MMS)
  • Iterates over any media attachments and downloads the remote attachment locally
  • Uploads the same attachment to AWS S3
  • Sends the attachments back to the same phone number that originally sent the message

Pre-reqs & technologies

Setup

Telnyx portal configuration

Be sure to have a Messaging Profile with a phone number enabled for SMS & MMS and webhook URL pointing to your service (using ngrok or similar)

Install packages via Gem/bundler

gem install telnyx
gem install sinatra
gem install dotenv
gem install ostruct
gem install json
gem install aws-sdk
gem install down

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This will create Gemfile file with the packages needed to run the application.

Setting environment variables

The following environmental variables need to be set

VariableDescription
TELNYX_API_KEYYour Telnyx API Key
TELNYX_PUBLIC_KEYYour Telnyx Public Key
TELNYX_APP_PORTDefaults to 8000 The port the app will be served
AWS_PROFILEYour AWS profile as set in ~/.aws
AWS_REGIONThe region of your S3 bucket
TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKETThe name of the bucket to upload the media attachments

.env file

This app uses the excellent dotenv package to manage environment variables.

Make a copy of the file below, add your credentials, and save as .env in the root directory.

TELNYX_API_KEY=
TELNYX_PUBLIC_KEY=
TENYX_APP_PORT=8000
AWS_PROFILE=
AWS_REGION=
TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKET=

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Code-along

We'll use a singe app.rb file to build the MMS application.

touch app.rb

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Setup Sinatra Server

require 'sinatra'
require 'telnyx'
require 'dotenv/load'
require 'json'
require 'ostruct'
require 'aws-sdk-s3'
require 'down'

if __FILE__ == $0
TELNYX_API_KEY=ENV.fetch("TELNYX_API_KEY")
TELNYX_APP_PORT=ENV.fetch("TELNYX_APP_PORT")
AWS_REGION = ENV.fetch("AWS_REGION")
TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKET = ENV.fetch("TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKET")
Telnyx.api_key = TELNYX_API_KEY
set :port, TELNYX_APP_PORT
end

get '/' do
"Hello World"
end

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Receiving Webhooks

Now that you have setup your auth token, phone number, and connection, you can begin to use the API Library to send/receive SMS & MMS messages. First, you will need to setup an endpoint to receive webhooks for inbound messages & outbound message Delivery Receipts (DLR).

Basic routing & functions

The basic overview of the application is as follows:

  1. Verify webhook & create TelnyxEvent
  2. Extract information from the webhook
  3. Iterate over any media and download/re-upload to S3 for each attachment
  4. Send the message back to the phone number from which it came
  5. Acknowledge the status update (DLR) of the outbound message

Media Download & Upload Functions

Before diving into the inbound message handler, first we'll create a few functions to manage our attachments.

  • download_file saves the content from a URL to disk
  • upload_file uploads the file passed to AWS S3 (and makes object public)
def upload_file(file_path)
s3 = Aws::S3::Resource.new(region: AWS_REGION)
name = File.basename(file_path)
obj = s3.bucket(TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKET).object(name)
obj.upload_file(file_path, acl: 'public-read')
obj.public_url
end

def download_file(uri)
temp_file = Down.download(uri)
path = "./#{temp_file.original_filename}"
FileUtils.mv(temp_file.path, path)
path
end

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Inbound message handling

Now that we have the functions to manage the media, we can start receiving inbound MMS's

The flow of our function is (at a high level):

  1. Extract relevant information from the webhook
  2. Build the webhook_url to direct the DLR to a new endpoint
  3. Iterate over any attachments/media and call our download & upload functions
  4. Send the outbound message back to the original sender with the media attachments
def deserialize_json(json)
object = JSON.parse(json, object_class: OpenStruct)
object
end

post '/messaging/inbound' do
webhook = deserialize_json(request.body.read)
dlr_uri = URI::HTTP.build(host: request.host, path: '/messaging/outbound')
to_number = webhook.data.payload.to[0].phone_number
from_number = webhook.data.payload.from.phone_number
media = webhook.data.payload.media
file_paths = []
media_urls = []
if media.any?
media.each do |item|
file_path = download_file(item.url)
file_paths.push(file_path)
media_url = upload_file(file_path)
media_urls.push(media_url)
end
end

begin
telnyx_response = Telnyx::Message.create(
from: to_number,
to: from_number,
text: "Hello, world!",
media_urls: media_urls,
use_profile_webhooks: false,
webhook_url: dlr_uri.to_s
)
puts "Sent message with id: #{telnyx_response.id}"
rescue Exception => ex
puts ex
end
end

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Outbound Message Handling

As we defined our webhook_url path to be /messaging/outbound we'll need to create a function that accepts a POST request to that path within messaging.js.

post '/messaging/outbound' do
webhook = deserialize_json(request.body.read)
puts "Received message DLR with ID: #{webhook.data.payload.id}"
end

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Final app.rb

All together the app.rb should look something like:

require 'sinatra'
require 'telnyx'
require 'dotenv/load'
require 'json'
require 'ostruct'
require 'aws-sdk-s3'
require 'down'

if __FILE__ == $0
TELNYX_API_KEY=ENV.fetch("TELNYX_API_KEY")
TELNYX_APP_PORT=ENV.fetch("TELNYX_APP_PORT")
AWS_REGION = ENV.fetch("AWS_REGION")
TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKET = ENV.fetch("TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKET")
Telnyx.api_key = TELNYX_API_KEY
set :port, TELNYX_APP_PORT
end

get '/' do
"Hello World"
end

def deserialize_json(json)
object = JSON.parse(json, object_class: OpenStruct)
object
end

def upload_file(file_path)
s3 = Aws::S3::Resource.new(region: AWS_REGION)
name = File.basename(file_path)
obj = s3.bucket(TELNYX_MMS_S3_BUCKET).object(name)
obj.upload_file(file_path, acl: 'public-read')
obj.public_url
end

def download_file(uri)
temp_file = Down.download(uri)
path = "./#{temp_file.original_filename}"
FileUtils.mv(temp_file.path, path)
path
end

post '/messaging/inbound' do
webhook = deserialize_json(request.body.read)
dlr_uri = URI::HTTP.build(host: request.host, path: '/messaging/outbound')
to_number = webhook.data.payload.to[0].phone_number
from_number = webhook.data.payload.from.phone_number
media = webhook.data.payload.media
file_paths = []
media_urls = []
if media.any?
media.each do |item|
file_path = download_file(item.url)
file_paths.push(file_path)
media_url = upload_file(file_path)
media_urls.push(media_url)
end
end

begin
telnyx_response = Telnyx::Message.create(
from: to_number,
to: from_number,
text: "Hello, world!",
media_urls: media_urls,
use_profile_webhooks: false,
webhook_url: dlr_uri.to_s
)
puts "Sent message with id: #{telnyx_response.id}"
rescue Exception => ex
puts ex
end
end

post '/messaging/outbound' do
webhook = deserialize_json(request.body.read)
puts "Received message DLR with ID: #{webhook.data.payload.id}"
end

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Usage

Start the server ruby app.rb

When you are able to run the server locally, the final step involves making your application accessible from the internet. So far, we've set up a local web server. This is typically not accessible from the public internet, making testing inbound requests to web applications difficult.

The best workaround is a tunneling service. They come with client software that runs on your computer and opens an outgoing permanent connection to a publicly available server in a data center. Then, they assign a public URL (typically on a random or custom subdomain) on that server to your account. The public server acts as a proxy that accepts incoming connections to your URL, forwards (tunnels) them through the already established connection and sends them to the local web server as if they originated from the same machine. The most popular tunneling tool is ngrok. Check out the ngrok setup walkthrough to set it up on your computer and start receiving webhooks from inbound messages to your newly created application.

Once you've set up ngrok or another tunneling service you can add the public proxy URL to your Inbound Settings in the Mission Control Portal. To do this, click the edit symbol [✎] next to your Messaging Profile. In the "Inbound Settings" > "Webhook URL" field, paste the forwarding address from ngrok into the Webhook URL field. Add messaging/inbound to the end of the URL to direct the request to the webhook endpoint in your server.

For now you'll leave “Failover URL” blank, but if you'd like to have Telnyx resend the webhook in the case where sending to the Webhook URL fails, you can specify an alternate address in this field.

Callback URLs For Telnyx Applications
Callback TypeURL
Inbound Message Callback{ngrok-url}/messaging/inbound
Outbound Message Status Callback{ngrok-url}/messaging/outbound

Once everything is setup, you should now be able to:

  • Text your phone number and receive a response!
  • Send a picture to your phone number and get that same picture right back!

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